Beijing History

Beijing History


2009624224050618“Peking Man” was emerged at Zhoukoudian area in Beijing. The city of Beijing itself also has possessed a 3000-year of development history. According to the oldest records, Beijing was first named as Ji. In Year 1045 BC, Beijing had become the capital of Ji, Yan as well as the following dynasties. Beijing had served as the major city as well as the most important business centre in China ever since 221 BC when Qin Shi Huang unified the whole nation of China. On the 1st October 1949, Beijing was declared as the capital of People’s Republic of China.
According to the recorded materials, Beijing was first named as Ji. Ji was one of the subsidiary nations of Western Zhou Dynasty in the past 11th Century BC. In the middle of Chunqiu Era (770 BC–476 BC), Yan which was another subsidiary nation located at the southwestern part of Ji had engulfed Ji and declared Ji as their capital. Ji remained its status as the capital of Yan until Yan was defeated by Qin on 226 BC. Qin was later referred to as Qin Dynasty.


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In the same year, the Mongols, leaded by Kublai Khan which was previously based in Northern part of China had extinguished Jin Dynasty and conquered the whole nation of China in hand with Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279). The dynasty which founded by Kublai Khan was named as Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). In 1267, Daning Palace (Beihai Park today) which was built by Jin Dynasty had been considered as the city centre for the purpose of reconstruction of the capital of Yuan Dynasty and the city was then renamed as Dadu. Four years later, Kublai Khan went on the throne and became the first emperor of Yuan Dynasty in this city which was still under construction. All the construction of the city had come to the end in 1276. The famous Italian Traveler, Marco Polo had witnessed the glory and magnificent of Dadu and therefore included this city in his travel writing which the city had been highlighted as an incomparable Dadu of Yuan Dynasty. Since then, Beijing had replaced the position of Changan, Luoyang as well as other ancient cities to become the major political center in China and the position remained until Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty. This city was basically formed the ancient old Beijing city.
Yuan Dynasty was later extinguished by Ming Dynasty which was leaded by Zhu Yuanzhang in 1368. The capital of Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) was Nanjing. Dadu was renamed as Beiping in Ming Dynasty. In 1403, after the usurpation of throne by Zhu Di, the 4th son of Zhu Yuanzhang, the capital of Ming Dynasty had transferred back to Beiping. Later, Beiping was renamed as Beijing and still remains this name until today. The construction of Forbidden City was begun during this period. 15 years had been spent for the overall construction and finally done in 1420. However, the emerged of Manchurians then led to the fall of Ming Dynasty. The Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) which was the last dynasty in China that capitalized in Beijing had defeated the Ming Dynasty. Beijing had been the capitals for many dynasties throughout the history. Since the independent of China in 1949, Beijing was again become the capital of People’s Republic of China.